Russia’s economy during the Russia-Ukraine war is now transitioning into a stage characterized by the nation’s endeavor to address the escalating financial burdens associated with the war, all the while grappling with a sluggish economic growth rate.
The Russian economy has been experiencing adverse effects as a result of the ongoing war and the economic sanctions imposed by the United States and the European Union. In reaction to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in 2022, both the United States and the European Union (EU) have implemented a series of sanctions against Russia. The purpose of these sanctions was to strategically exclude Russia from the international economic system, exert pressure on the country to cease its aggressive actions, and uphold the principles of Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity. The freezing of assets belonging to Russia’s central bank, prominent banks, and state-owned corporations inside the territories of the United States and the European Union has taken place. In addition, there has been a prohibition on fresh investments in Russia by both individuals and corporations, with the exclusion of Russia from the SWIFT payment system. Over 1,000 Russian people and businesses have been the target of individual sanctions from many countries, including the United States, the European Union, and the United Kingdom. These penalties include measures including imposing travel restrictions. The United States and the United Kingdom have implemented energy sanctions, which include a full ban on the import of oil and gas from Russia. Furthermore, a predetermined upper limit has been implemented for the cost of Russian crude oil, followed by a warning to importers about the lack of insurance protection for oil deliveries above this price level. Similarly, the European Union has enacted measures that include the cessation of Russian coal imports and a restriction on the importation of refined oil. The German government has implemented a suspension on the commencement of operations for the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline. This decision was made in light of the potential escalation of Germany’s reliance on Russian gas resources.
Furthermore, the implementation of sanctions has resulted in a rise in inflation, a decline in investment and consumer demand, the disruption of supply chains, and an escalation in the likelihood of capital flight and financial instability inside Russia. Additionally, the annual inflation rate in Russia increased to 4.3% in July 2023. In June 2023, the inflation rate in Russia was at 3.2%, exhibiting a lower value than anticipated. The central bank has expressed its intention to possibly increase interest rates during the current year to restore prices to their target level by 2024. The imposition of sanctions has not only adversely affected Russia’s immediate economic outlook but has also had a detrimental impact on its future growth possibilities. The World Bank cautions that Russia is confronted with the prospect of long-term economic decline unless it effectively tackles its structural challenges and enhances its governance.
The primary objective of the first sanctions imposed on Russia was to sever their access to critical manufactured goods, impair their capacity for engaging in warfare, and exert a broader impact on their economy. However, despite the partial alleviation of supply limitations created by sanctions, actual production in the industrial sector and mining sector (specifically oil and gas extraction) continued to be lower than the levels seen before the invasion. The mining industry is now experiencing a significant slowdown, mostly due to the decline in global oil prices seen in the last year. Additionally, the reduction in natural gas pipeline networks, such as Nord Stream, supplying Europe, and the limited impact of price controls on Russian oil have further exacerbated the situation. The impact of sanctions on many subsectors of the Russian economy, particularly those involved in the production of high-complexity products for civilian use, continues to persist. Conversely, a portion of high-complexity manufacturing resources has been reallocated from the manufacture of various consumer-grade goods to bolster military manufacturing efforts while simultaneously compensating for the decline in imported goods.
From an economic perspective, the increase in imports, along with the decrease in exports due to the alleviation of the energy crisis, has resulted in a reduction of Russia’s goods trade surplus to levels below those seen before the pandemic. However, imports are the fastest-growing trade between Russia and China. China is generating significant revenue from these sales, which is particularly crucial in light of its decelerating economy. Additionally, China is obtaining energy commodities at somewhat discounted prices compared to the global market while concurrently expanding its financial engagement in the Russian economy. China has seen a significant and quick increase in its share of total Russian imports, reaching around 40%, which is almost double the level observed before the height of the pandemic. Currently, the Russian government has effectively replaced the Dollar as the primary source of foreign currency funding for most Russian enterprises. Russia has also made efforts to decrease the use of the Euro and Dollar. However, this has mostly resulted in a heightened reliance on the Chinese Yuan. Russia has also endeavored to promote the use of the ruble for a greater proportion of its foreign trade settlements.
Russia is facing a significant challenge as it grapples with the loss of access to around 50% of its foreign reserves, which have been rendered inaccessible for conversion into the national currency or use in times of crisis. The imposition of sanctions has resulted in a decrease in Russia’s ability to acquire foreign cash, leading to a devaluation of the ruble and a significant increase in inflation. It has resulted in the immobilization of the national currency or use in times of crisis. Despite the imposition of sanctions, Russia has continued to export oil and gas, which constitute a significant portion, of its total export profits. These factors have the potential to significantly impact Russia’s fiscal equilibrium and its external standing. The oil and gas earnings of Russia have seen an upsurge as a result of elevated world prices. However, this phenomenon simultaneously renders the economy susceptible to external shocks and diminishes its level of diversification. Furthermore, the imposition of sanctions has resulted in the disruption of Russia’s coal shipments to Europe, significantly impacting the economic viability of certain areas heavily reliant on this source of revenue.
The imposed sanctions by the US and Western allies had an initial impact on the Russian economy, leading to a recession. Following this, there was a significant decline in the import of necessary materials. Furthermore, the gradual decrease in energy prices during the late period of 2022 and early 2023 has started to adversely affect Russia’s revenue. However, as the war intensifies, it is increasingly exerting a greater strain on Russia’s economic resources. Russia’s defense expenditure in the first six months is anticipated to reach around $60 billion. Russia would further allocate $100 billion towards military expenditures for the ongoing war this year. In the current context, The NATO allies have successfully managed to allocate around $90 billion to provide direct military equipment support to Ukraine. This development is particularly significant considering that Russia is now facing a government budget deficit.
Russia is observing a rising scarcity of labor as employees are either sent to the frontlines or choose to emigrate from the nation entirely. Russia’s economic resiliency following the Ukraine invasion and efforts to lessen reliance on the US dollar are indicators of its growing geopolitical dependence on China. There is a notable trend toward reallocating resources from the Russian civilian sector to the Russian military. Consequently, the government has resorted to continuous borrowing of financial resources for the continuing invasion. These developments have led to unfavorable trading conditions with China and the strengthening of financial ties between the two nations.
There is significant concern over the escalating levels of inflation and the intensifying recession within the Russian economy as the war continues. It further projects an exacerbation of the economic challenges of the broken Russian economy.
[Moscow International Business Center. Photo by Kishjar, via Wikimedia Commons]
The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author.
Aishwarya Sanjukta Roy Proma is a Research Associate at BRAC Institute of Governance and Development (BIGD).